Archive for category nanobots

What Are the Capabilities of Nanobots?

If you are at all familiar with nanotechnology you may have also heard about nanobots, but since nanotechnology itself has such a diverse application it can be difficult to ascertain exactly what nanobots do.

As a matter of fact, technically speaking nanorobots, or nanobots, don’t do anything yet—they haven’t been formally invented.

Researchers are hard at work developing them, however, and based on their promising progress they anticipate that the public debut of a working team of nanobots will occur sometime in the next 25 years if not before then. In other words, these microscopic robots are the next big thing.

So just what is so great about having a robot that measures only six atoms across? Since this tiny size gives them the ability to interact at the bacteria and virus level, nanobots’ main function will probably be medical. They have the potential to revolutionize the medical community in almost every way.

Nanorobots are so tiny that they could be easily injected into the bloodstream, where they would then float through your circulatory system in order to locate and fix problem areas of your body.

Working in the laboratory

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How Nanobots Can Repair Damaged Tissue

The burgeoning field of nanotechnology has many useful and direct applications for the medical industry, and nanorobots are no exception to this rule.  The medical science wants to create nanobots that can repair damaged tissue without pain and trauma.

Many of the medical procedures we employ today are very traumatic to the human body and do not work in harmony with our natural systems.

Chemotherapy wreaks havoc on humans and nearly kills them in the quest to kill off their malignant cancer cells.

Invasive surgical procedures are also quite common today, with associated traumas that cause many patients to die on the operating table rather than survive and heal.

Nanorobots are so small that they actually interact on the same level as bacteria and viruses do, and so they are capable of building with the very particles of our bodies: atoms and molecules.

The ideal nanobot has not yet been fully realized, but when this microscopic robot makes its inevitable debut it will be hailed as a lifesaver by the world of medicine.


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How Nanorobots Are Made

Nanotechnology as a whole is fairly simple to understand, but developing this universal technology into a nanorobot has been slightly more complicated.

To date, scientists have made significant progress but have not officially released a finished product in terms of a nanorobot that functions on an entirely mechanical basis.

Many of the nanobot prototypes function quite well in certain respects but are mostly or partly biological in nature, whereas the ultimate goal and quintessential definition of a nanorobot is to have the microscopic entity made entirely out of electromechanical components.

In fact, researchers anticipate that due to the complicated nature of their construction, nanobots will only fully emerge after several generations of partly-biological nanobot forerunners have been constructed in order to make them.

Nanorobots are essentially an adapted machine version of bacteria. They are designed to function on the same scale as both bacteria and common viruses in order to interact with and repel them from the human system.

Since they are so small that you can’t see them with your naked eye, they will also possibly be used to perform “miracle” functions such as cleaning your kitchen (“the kitchen that cleans itself!”) invisibly weaving fabric, cooking food slowly but steadily, and essentially performing other functions that humans could do, but—let’s face it—will probably be too lazy to do ourselves by the time these nanobots become functional.


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What Nanobots Are Made Out Of

Nanotechnology simply refers to very small particles and doesn’t specify the material the particles come from, so when researchers sat down to develop a nanorobot they were faced with literally endless possibilities for its material makeup.

Biological nanobots have technically been created, as have large or conventionally-sized robots with the ability to work on the nanoscale.

But the traditional idea of nanorobots involves them being all or mostly mechanical, and these types of nanobots are the next step in nanotechnology.

nano robot

There are many scientists and research groups currently hard at work on shrinking and adapting the conventional robot and they’ve gotten them pretty small, but not quite down to the nanoscale as of yet. The main problem seems to be the robotic power source for such a tiny machine.

Traditionally, most robots have a solar cell or some kind of battery pack, but obviously these are many times too large for a nanobot. However, the answer may lie in nuclear technology. Researchers consider it highly likely that when equipped with a thin film of radioactive material, nanobots will be able to fuel themselves on particles released by decaying atoms.

This fuel technology is easily scaled down to nano-size. It also proves immensely efficient because with such a self-driven system in place, nanobots would be able to function indefinitely and never require a replacement fuel cell as they would with batteries or solar power.

If and when the fully functional mechanical nanobot does emerge, as it most likely will in the next few years, its primary material may be silicon. Silicon has always been the first choice for delicate electronics and has the right qualities to make a successful scaled-down robot, even one as tiny as a few hundred nanometers. It is strong enough to last and conduct electricity on a regular basis, but also flexible enough to be manipulated in various ways; this makes it the universal one-size-fits-all electronic material.

However, constructing nanobots out of silicon would subject them to the same issues that other silicon electronics face, one of which is that they are not biodegradable. If nanobots were to be produced on a large scale their enduring materials would not be as dangerous as all the microchips and computer electronics currently sitting in our landfills, but they would still be another small drain on our natural resources.

Consequently it becomes even more pressing to find a mass-recycling solution for them. Silicon can be recycled into low-grade products like solar cells, but the process is long, complicated, and usually costly.

Up to this point in time, the closest thing to a purely mechanical nanorobot that has ever been created was the work of U.C. Berkeley affiliate Kris Pister. He invented a solar-powered robot that measures only 8.5 millimeters and can walk slowly on two “legs” like humans do. True to form, Pister composed his robot primarily of tiny silicon pieces called transducers which are capable of taking the energy generated by the robot’s solar cell and turning it into mechanical power. Although extremely tiny, technically the robot that Pister created is macroscopic. But it does represent a valuable step in the scaling-down process of traditional electromechanical robots.

One of the issues associated with the final creation of the nanobot is autonomy. A suggested alternative to silicon components is installing a system whereby small clusters of molecules react to forces in their environment, convert these reactions into power, and use the resulting energy in order to move themselves forward.

But if the motive power has been generated by inevitable chemical or physical reactions, will the nanobot still qualify as autonomous? Critics say no. Since the ultimate goal is to create an autonomous self-moving nanorobot, this approach seems to miss the goal and scientists anticipate that the true innovations will lie in steadily shrinking down the traditional electromechanical components: power supply, processor, transducer, and integration.

With these components in place and adjusted to fit the scale and functioning peculiarities of the nanorobot, researchers anticipate that the nanorobot will soon be created.

These miniscule robots may be up and running within the next 25 years. One of the primary difficulties that has prevented them from being completed up to this point is the simple issue of how one goes about building things that are this tiny. In the future, scientists expect to create micro-factories that will pump out legions of nanobots for human consumption.

But so far the only tools we have for working at this level are those found on larger robots, and in some cases they are not convenient for the type of construction involved in producing a nanorobot. So the work is progressing, but slowly.

Hard oxides and metals that are typically used for electronics will be essential, but many of them (including silicon) have to be effectively reduced to the nanoscale before any serious work can go forward. Prototypes have been built using biological components, but the ultimate goal is to achieve a purely electromechanical model.

Scientists want to build mechanical nanobots on the bacteria model. In terms of characteristics and function, a bacteria is simply a natural nanomachine gone haywire. Scientists hope that by steadily adapting individual bacteria over time and potentially adding electrical components by degrees, they will eventually be able to convert them into nanobots. Probably the first functioning nanobots will have to be at least partly biological so that we can use these pre-runners to create their more sophisticated descendants.

In the middle stage of our nanobot development we will probably see high-production nano-factories emerge, staffed by partly-biological nanorobots which can then in turn produce an ultimate nanorobot: a fully mechanical, voice-programmed microscopic machine capable of performing a wide array of useful functions. Scientists consider this the end goal in all nanotechnological research, and expect that it will take several stages to get there. So, in other words, fans of the ideal nanorobot may have to wait. But eventually we will have this ultimate technology and all of its amazing capabilities at our disposal.

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